Elements of It

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1. Data & Information.

Data is the plural form of the Latin words “Datum” which means “something given”.“The collection of the fact and figure in a rough form that can be organized and manipulate is called data”. “Data is also a collection of raw, unorganized but related facts and figures for problem-solving” e.g. (name, address, admission form).

Types of Data (Elements of IT):
Data may be of three types.

a. Alphabetic Data.

Data which show the quality of different objects and can not be used in an arithmetic operation. For example letters from A-Z i.e. good, bad, beautiful, etc. Its shows the qualities of the object, therefore, it is also called qualitative data.

b. Numeric Data.

Data which show the quantities of different objects and can be used in arithmetic operations. For example decimal numbers from 0-9, temperature, length, marks, etc. it shows the number of objects, therefore, it is also called quantitative data.

c. Alphanumeric Data.

The combination of Alfa & Numeric data is called alphanumeric data. It has both characteristics i.e. alpha & numeric e.g. address like H#55-A.


“A process and manipulate data is called information” or “information is the meaningful data and can be used in decision making. For example merit list, bills and Registration card. In the computer, we input data and gets results in the form of information.

2. Hardware:

All the physical components of a computer are called Hardware. e.g. CPU, keyboard, monitor, etc.

3. Software:

All the computer programs are called Software of a computer. e.g. DOS, Windows-XP, C++, MS Word, MS Paint, etc.

4. Procedure:

“A step by step instruction for using a new Hardware or Software is called Procedure”. It is also called manuals. Now a day these instructions are in a Floppy Disk /CD, which contains files (dll) Dynamic Link Library. These files are necessary for installation. Now a day these instructions are already installed in a system. Therefore operation system has a feature of Plug & Play.

5. Communication:

“The Transfer of data or information from one point to another point by using some medium”. The medium can be co-axial cable, optical fiber or some other.

“To send and receive data or information on the computer is called communication or data communication”

6. People:

The person or individual who work in environment related to IT as known as IT Personnel. They may be of five types.

a) System Administrator / Supervisor.

Supervisor planes the overall management of the system and maintains the Hardware and Software.

b) System Analyst.

System Analyst planes the whole system according to the needs of customers. They have the feasibility studies and suggest the software and hardware requirements of the system.

c) Programmer.

In the lights of information proved by system analyst the programmer designs, writes, test and implements the program in a language.

d) Operator.

They are commonly known as Computer Operator. They are required to input data into the program developed by the programmer and to get information from it.

e) Users.

A person who has little knowledge to use the computer for its routine tasks.

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