Private Education in Germany
In all areas of education, there are also, to some extent, private institutions. Institutions falling under this category are at the preschool level subordinate to the society for the protection of children and young people, schools and universities, as well as educational institutions for adults. The public sector and private institutions coexist and interact with each other, thereby ensuring the choice of educational programs and an increase in the number of different governing bodies, which gives rise to the development and promotion of innovations in education.
Churches and other social groups that run educational institutions form both the society and the state. The right to establish private schools is provided for by the constitution (article 7, paragraph 4) and, to some extent, by decrees of the state constitutions. Freedom to establish private schools is associated with giving a private school the status of an institution.
Thus, constitutional law excludes the state monopoly on education. The right to establish a private institution of higher education is based on the freedom of art and teaching, research and teaching, enshrined in the constitution (Article 5, paragraph 3). The number of private schools varies from land to land, divided into different types, some refer to private universities.
Private institutions at the preschool level
In the lands of western Germany, education, socialization, and care for children from three years old to school age belong mainly to private Kindergärten. The 1990 Child and Youth Welfare Act ( Kinder- und Jugendhilfegesetz), amended in 2002, gives priority to institutions governed by non-governmental bodies (churches, welfare associations, parent associations, etc.) for a wide range of institutions.
Public bodies (local authorities) should establish their own institutions if non-public bodies did not form the relevant institutions in time. As a result of this principle, about 66% of Kindergärtenin the lands of western Germany in 1998, were managed by non-governmental organizations to improve the well-being of children and young people; in the lands of eastern Germany, private institutions accounted for about 33% by 1998, beginning in 1990, when Kindergärtenin the GDR began to be funded either by the state or by local authorities.
Kindergärten, which are funded by non-governmental organizations, is also a matter of public administration. It is usually carried out by the land youth protection agencies ( Landesjugendämter) as supra-regional organizers of services to improve the well-being of young people. The management of these private sector services receives financial support from the lands and local authorities ( Kommunen ) to manage Kindergärten (for example, staff costs and investments).
Private schools at the primary level
In the primary education sector, private schools can only be established under very strict conditions (constitution, article 7, paragraph 5). Their establishment can take place only where school authorities see an educational need, or where, at the request of parents, they will be established as independent of religion ( Gemeinschaftsschulen ), schools with pupils of the same religion or school following a certain ideology and there is no public primary school.
Private primary schools are an exception; in almost all cases, these are either primary schools with pupils of the same religion, schools of Rudolf Steiner (known as Freie Waldorfschulen ), reformist schools, or primary schools with the integration of the boarding system.
Secondary private schools
At the secondary school level, there are two types of private schools:
• Alternative schools ( Ersatzschulen ) as a replacement for a public sector school that already exists or is provided for this land. General compulsory education is available at these schools. But these schools, as, for example, schools of one religion, reformist schools, boarding schools, or international schools, may have their own purpose.
• Additional schools ( Ergänzungsschulen ) should complement existing courses with new ones that are absent in schools in the public sector, primarily related to vocational guidance.
The main legal regulations are the laws on private schools or the relevant regulations in educational acts, as well as settlements on financial assistance in-laws and land regulations. Conditions for compliance with land standards are described in the “Agreement on Private Schools” of August 11, 1951, concluded by the Permanent Conference of Ministers of Education and Culture.
Private institutions in the higher education sector
The overwhelming majority of universities in the Federal Republic of Germany are state-run institutions. The Constitution does not clearly regulate the establishment of a non-state university. But their establishment is allowed only if the conditions for the freedom of art, learning, research and teaching described in the constitution are fulfilled (article 5, paragraph 3). The system act on higher education (Hochschulrahmengesetz) of the federation and the land laws on the management of higher education state that minimum requirements must be met for the state to recognize non-public universities.
Only lands are responsible for the state recognition of non-state universities. The Federation and the Lands have concluded an agreement that non-state institutions of higher education should be accredited by the Scientific Council (Wissenschaftsrat). Institutional accreditation is a quality control procedure conducted to determine whether a higher education institution is suitable for conducting studies, which, according to state legislation, belongs to the higher education sector.
The accreditation procedure is thus designed to check and determine whether the institution meets the minimum quality standards. The requirements of these minimum standards are set out in the System Act on Higher Education (Hochschulrahmengesetz) of the Federation and the laws of the land by which the system of higher education is regulated and coordinated with the type of institution profile.
The official recognition of the relevant land depends on whether confirmation has been received that a private university has the same status (but a different structure) as the state university. Thus, there is a whole list of points, according to which a private institution must prove that it satisfies the requirements and standards of a similar state institution. In addition, it is necessary that persons working at the institute should have a minimum level of education related to teaching and research.
The recognition concerns the institution, appointment, and organization of the university, as well as courses and examinations and academic degrees offered by the university. There is a whole list of points according to which a private institution must prove that it satisfies the requirements and standards of a similar state institution. In addition, it is necessary that persons working at the institute should have a minimum level of education related to teaching and research. The recognition concerns the institution, appointment, and organization of the university, as well as courses and examinations and academic degrees offered by the university.
There is a whole list of points according to which a private institution must prove that it satisfies the requirements and standards of a similar state institution. In addition, it is necessary that persons working at the institute should have a minimum level of education related to teaching and research. The recognition concerns the institution, appointment, and organization of the university, as well as courses and examinations and academic degrees offered by the university.
The number of private universities and students remains low. In 2001, there were only 350 universities in Germany, serving a total of just under 1.9 million students. They consisted of 86, mostly small non-state universities.
Professional academies (Berufsakademien) are governed by land rules.
While professional academies are governed by the state in Baden-Wittenberg, Berlin, Zyssen, and Thuringia, the laws of Berufsakademie in Essen, Niederzagsen, Schleswig-Holstein, and Saarland provide for the existence of private professional academies that require the approval of the appropriate land ministry. In Germany, out of 35 Berufsakademien, 17 are private and, therefore, unlike the other 18 institutions, are not funded by land.