Choosing an Institution in the Higher Education Sector
The choice of university is governed by the right to freely choose the place of the study recorded in the constitution (Article 12), provided that all the requirements for admission are met. Anyone who has qualifications for admission to university studies of a general or specific focus ( Allgemeine Hochschulreife or Fachgebundene Hochschulreife ) or qualifications for admission to Fachhochschule ( Fachhochschulreife ) is eligible to study at a university.
All applicants whose data meets the requirements are credited to the institute for their chosen course without additional selection procedures. For courses in fine arts and other arts (for example, art and music colleges), prospective students should not have any formal qualifications (Hochschulreife ), but they must demonstrate their artistic ability. Another exception is the applicants of sports institutions, which must also demonstrate their abilities.
Currently, there is limited access to some university courses (for example, in medicine, veterinary medicine, dentistry, biology, pharmacology, psychology, and business) due to a large number of applicants and the insufficient capacity of universities. Places are distributed in this case through the procedure of general selection.
The number of subjects included in the general selection procedure may vary from one semester to another. But national restrictions on acceptance for most courses do not exist. There are local restrictions on admission in some institutions to courses where admission is not carried out in accordance with national regulations. In these cases, the institute decides whether or not to accept each individual applicant.
The main selection criteria – both at the local and central levels – are the grade obtained by the applicant and entered into their Hochschulreife certificate for admission to the university and the period between the receipt of this certificate and admission to the university. The motivation of the applicant, his abilities and professional qualifications can also be taken into account in the allocation of places.
In addition, in addition to universities, access to which is open to all, there are specialized institutions with limited access (for example, universities of the federal armed forces). Civil servants are trained in public administration for the highest level of civil service in Fachhochschulen in public administration administered by the Federation and the Länder. Applicants of these Fachhochschulen must have the necessary prerequisites for mastering this profession, students have the status of recalled civil servants.
Applicants of Berufsakademien must have qualifications for admission to the university and an educational contract with the relevant educational institution. When the contract is concluded, applicants are registered in Studienakademie (educational institute) by the company responsible for their training.