Financing Education in Russia
Education is one of the most important branches of the non-production sphere. The right to receive education in accordance with the Law on Education is one of the fundamental and inalienable rights of citizens of the Russian Federation. Great importance is attached to improving the quality of training, the training of specialists in new areas of science and technology, and the continuous improvement of the educational process.
Expenditures on education in accordance with the budget classification include the costs of general education, parenting of children and adolescents, cultural and educational work, and personnel training.
The law provides that the field of education is within the competence of the Russian Federation, subjects of the Russian Federation and local governments. In the competence of the Russian Federation, the share of the federal budget allocated to finance education, as well as the formation of the federal budget in terms of education costs, federal education development funds, tax incentives that stimulate the development of education, federal education financing standards, depending on the number of students, pupils, minimum sizes salary rates and official salaries of employees of educational institutions and public authorities education . In the competence of the subjects of the Federation in this area – the formation of their budgets in terms of spending on education,
The competence of local governments is the formation of local budgets and funds for the development of education, the development and adoption of local standards for financing education.
In recent years, approximately 12% of total expenditures of the consolidated budget have been allocated for the maintenance of educational institutions, about 4% of its expenses from the federal budget and about 20% of expenditures of the budgets of the constituent entities of the Federation, that is, the main share of expenditures falls on territorial budgets. In the total amount of expenditures on education, expenditures on pre-school institutions account for approximately 15%, on general secondary education — 41%, boarding schools — 8%, secondary special education — 10.5%, for higher education — 11.5%.
It should be noted that budgets of different levels do not participate equally in the financing of various educational institutions. Thus, secondary schools are 99% financed from the budgets of the subjects of the Federation and only 1% from the federal budget, Financing of educational institutions is carried out on the basis of state and local standards of financing per student, pupil for each type and type of educational institution. Federal financing standards must be approved annually by the State Duma simultaneously with the adoption of the law on the federal budget for the next year and be minimally acceptable.
Regional and local standards of financing should take into account the specifics of an educational institution and be sufficient to cover the average operating costs for a given territory associated with the educational process and the operation of buildings, structures and standard equipment of an educational institution. The scheme of financing state and municipal educational institutions is determined by the model regulations on the appropriate type of educational institution.
Non-state educational institutions also receive budget financing according to financing standards similar to state and municipal educational institutions in the given territory. These institutions are entitled to state and municipal financing from the moment of their state registration.
The transition to market relations has expanded the ability of educational institutions to raise funds to finance their core business. They are entitled to attract financial resources, including foreign currency, in accordance with the current legislation, by providing paid additional educational and other services provided for by the charter, as well as voluntary donations and targeted contributions from businesses and individuals. The attraction of an educational institution of additional funds does not entail a reduction in the standards and the absolute amount of its financing from the budget system.
Additional paid services to the population include:
- Training in additional educational programs;
- Teaching special courses and courses of disciplines;
- In-depth study of individual subjects, etc.
The provision of additional paid services should go beyond the relevant educational programs and state educational standards. Revenues from the specified activities of an educational institution should be directed to the development of statutory activities, including an increase in salary costs. In this case, this activity will not apply to business. It is also necessary to keep in mind that paid services cannot be rendered in return and within the framework of the main educational activities financed from the budget. Otherwise, funds received through such activities are withdrawn to the appropriate budget.